Faces From the Past:
Forgotten People of North America
A book about the facial reconstruction of historic remains found in North America
Here are some sources I used in researching and writing the book, arranged by topic:
John Prag and Richard Neave, Making Faces: Using Forensic and Archaeological Evidence(London: British Museum Press, 1997). It provides an excellent summary of the history of facial reconstruction followed by numerous, detailed, and compelling examples of historical reconstructions done by Neave, who is considered by many to be the most accomplished facial-reconstruction sculptor working today. Two other books that provide good background information are Caroline Wilkinson, Forensic Facial Reconstruction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) and Karen T. Taylor, Forensic Art and Illustration (Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2001). Ian Wilson's Past Lives: Unlocking the Secrets of Our Ancestors (London: Cassell., 2001) offers an assortment of various historical facial reconstructions throughout the world.
Spirit Cave Man
The best source of information about Spirit Cave Man is S. M. Wheeler’s brief field notes, stored under lock and key at the Nevada State Museum. I was able to read the three pages of the notes in which Wheeler describes the discovery and excavation of Spirit Cave Man: "Rattlesnake Incentive," 1940, unpublished field notes, Wheeler Papers (Nevada State Museum, Carson City). Popular accounts of Spirit Cave Man are few and usually found on only a few pages within a book. The best popular sources I found are Jeff Benedict, No Bone Unturned: Inside the World of a Top Forensic Scientist and His Work on America's Most Notorious Crimes and Disasters (New York: Perennial, 2004) and Elaine Dewar, Bones: Discovering the First Americans (New York: Carroll and Graf, 2002). David J. Meltzer, First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009) provided me with a comprehensive look at the theories surrounding the first immigrants to North America.
The best source of information about the Monacan Indian Nation today that I found is Karenne Wood and Diane Shields, The Monacan Indians: Our Story (Madison Heights, Va.: The Monacan Indian Nation, n.d.) which is available at the Monacan Ancestral Museum. Other sources I consulted were Andrew Cockburn, Journey Through Hallowed Ground: Birthplace of the American Ideal (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2008); Debra L. Gold, The Bioarchaeology of Virginia Burial Mounds (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004); and Peter W. Houck and Mintcy D. Maxham, Indian Island in Amherst County (Lynchburg, Va.: Warwick House: 1993). Rosemary Clark Whitlock, The Monacan Indian Nation of Virginia: The Drums of Life (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2008) contains oral histories of many Monacans and provides more vivid accounts of their experiences with racism in Virginia.
The La Belle Sailor
The most complete account of the history and discovery of La Belle is James E. Bruseth and Toni S. Turner’s From a Watery Grave: The Discovery and Excavation of La Salle’s Shipwreck, La Belle (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2005). For historical information about La Salle and his attempt to establish a Louisiana colony, I read William C. Foster (ed.), The La Salle Expedition to Texas: The Journal of Henri Joutel, 1684-1687 (Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1998); Robert S. Weddle, The Wreck of the Belle, the Ruin of La Salle (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2001); and Robert S. Weddle, Mary Christian Morkovsky, and Patricia Galloway, eds., La Salle, the Mississippi, and the Gulf: Three Primary Documents, trans. Ann Linda Bell and Robert S. Weddle (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1987).
Pearl from Colonial Albany
One of my own research highlights from this book was becoming acquainted with Albany’s rich and varied history. In particular, I found Charles L. Fisher, People, Places, and Material Things: Historical Archaeology of Albany, New York, New York State Museum Bulletin 499 (Albany: New York State Education Department, 2003), quite fascinating, with its various articles about the Pearl Street and other Albany excavations. I also read Dean R. Snow, Charles T Gehring, and William A. Starna, eds., In Mohawk Country: Early Narratives about a Native People (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1996); David G. Hackett, The Rude Hand of Innovation: Religion and Social Order in Albany, New York 1652-1836 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991) and Donna Merwick, Possessing Albany, 1630-1710: The Dutch and English Experiences (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Schuyler Flatts Enslaved Workers
Little has been written about the Schuyler Flatts burying ground. The main source of information is Lisa Anderson, "Schuyler Flatts Burial Ground Report," unpublished report (Albany: New York State Museum). For information about slavery in New York State, I consulted Edgar J. McManus, A History of Negro Slavery in New York. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1970 and L. Lloyd Stewart, A Far Cry from Freedom: Gradual Abolition (1799-1827) (Bloomington, In.: AuthorHouse, 2006), Joyce Hansen and Gary McGowan, Breaking Ground, Breaking Silence: The Story of New York’s African Burial Ground (New York: Henry Holt, 1998) was helpful in providing me a context for another African burying ground. For primary source material, I used Anne MacVicar Grant, Memoirs of an American Lady: With Sketches of Manners and Scenes in America as They Existed Previous to the Revolution (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1901).
Mexican Soldier from San Jacinto
The only historical and scientific accounts regarding the four Mexican soldiers whose skulls were recovered at the San Jacinto Battleground are Jeffrey D. Dunn, "The Mexican Soldier Skulls of San Jacinto Battleground," and Douglas Owsley, Richard Jantz, and Karin Bruwelheide, "Cranial Injuries in Six Mexican Soldiers Killed at San Jacinto," both papers presented at the Tenth Annual Battle of San Jacinto Symposium (Houston, April 1, 2010). Both can be retrieved online at the Friends of the San Jacinto Battleground website (www.friendsofsanjacinto.com/articles/mexican-soldier-skulls-san-jacinto-battleground). Ann Fabian, The Skull Collectors: Race, Science, and America’s Unburied Dead (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010) offers a thorough look at Samuel George Morton’s cranial collection. For background information on the Texas War for Independence, I relied on H. W. Brands, Lone Star Nation: The Epic Story of the Battle for Texas Independence (New York: Anchor Books, 2004) and Stephen L. Hardin, Texian Illiad: A Military History of the Texas Revolution (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994).
People of the Albany Almshouse
The two most comprehensive published sources about the excavations at the almshouse cemetery are both by Martin C. Solano: "Gone but Not Forgotten: Life and Death in the Albany County Almshouse" (The Dutch Settlers Society of Albany Yearbook 54 [2001-2005]: pp. 43-58) and The Life Stresses of Poverty: Skeletal and Historical Indicators of Activity Patterns in the Albany County Almshouse Skeletal Collection, 1825-1925, Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York-Albany, 2006. For historical background on the Albany almshouse, I read Reginald Byron, Irish America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) and Judith A. Dulberger, Mother Donit fore the Best: Correspondence of a Nineteenth-Century Orphan Asylum (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1996). For a better understanding of the use of almshouses in the United States I found Michael B. Katz, In the Shadow of the Poorhouse: A Social History of Welfare in America (New York: Basic Books, 1996) helpful.
Thomas Smith, Buffalo Soldier
For information about the looting of Fort Craig’s cemetery, I read Samir S. Patel, “The Case of the Missing Buffalo Soldier” (Archaeology, March/April 2009: pp. 40-44) among other sources. To learn more about Fort Craig, I relied on Marion Cox Grinstead, "Back at the Fort," in Fort Craig: The United States Fort on the Camino Real, eds. Charles Carroll and Lynne Sebastian (Socorro, N.M.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, 2000), pp. 27-63). Monroe Lee Billington, New Mexico’s Buffalo Soldiers 1866-1900 (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1991); Elizabeth D. Leonard, Men of Color to Arms! Black Soldiers, Indian Wars, and the Quest for Equality (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010); and Frank N. Schubert, Voices of the Buffalo Soldier: Records, Reports, and Recollections of Military Life and Service in the West (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2003) were invaluable sources of information about the buffalo soldiers.
Six Chinese Miners
Information about the six Chinese burials is published in two main sources: Rennie Phillips, “A More Complete Picture of Chinese Life on the Wyoming Frontier,” plan B paper University of Wyoming, 1999); and Rennie Phillips Polidora, “Six Historic Chinese Burials from Southwestern Wyoming,” in Skeletal Biology and Bioarchaeology of the Northwestern Plains, eds. George W. Gill and Rick L. Weathermon (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2008: pp. 94-103). One of the best general books about Chinese immigrants in the western United States is Chinese on the American Frontier, ed. Arif Dirlik, (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001). Liping Zhu, A Chinaman’s Chance: The Chinese on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1997) supplied me with an understanding of the struggles and successes of Chinese immigrants on the western frontier. To learn more about the Rock Springs massacre, I read Craig Storti, Incident at Bitter Creek: The Story of the Rock Springs Chinese Massacre (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1991).